Recently in news:
- For the 8th time, India will occupy non-permanent member seat of UNSC (United Nation Security Council). Earlier, Afghanistan agreed to set aside for the 2021-22 seat, in a friendly gesture because India has been planning for a seat in 2021-22 since 2013 as the year will mark its 75th year of Independence.
- It was hard for India to get this seat since there was rise in tension between India and China, India and Pakistan. Also, there was criticism by Turkey, Malayasia and OIC (Organization of Islamic Cooperation) over scrapping of Article 370 as well Citizenship Amendment Act 2019.
- Agenda of India during 2021-22 are as follows: (i) International terrorism, (ii) UN Reforms, (iii) Security Council expansion to include more permanent members, (iv) Peacekeeping operation, etc.
- India also seeks for permanent membership. G-4 (Japan India Brazil Germany) are asking for permanent membership in UN Security Council.
- 5 Permanent members of Security Council: China, USA, UK, Russua Federation and France.
Chapter V (Article 23-32) of the United Charter mentions the Security Council. Security Council is continuously functioning body. It originally consisted of 11 members, but since 1965 it was increased to 15 members. Out of these 15 member, 5 are Permanent members and Ten are non-permanent member. The Permanent members enjoy the power of “Veto”. Composition of UNSC is given under Article 23 of UN Charter Act.
The contribution of USA in UNO regular budget is 25% and that of Japan is 20% .
Distribution of 10 non-permanent members are as follows:
5 members are from African and Asian Countries;
1 member is from Eastern European Countries;
2 members are from latin America and Caribean countries;
2 members are from Western European and other countries.
Election of non-permanent member:
The tenure of non-permanent member is for a period of 2 years. Also, non-permanent member are elected by voting in the General Assembly and requires 2/3 of the 193 members of general assembly to vote in its favour in a secret ballot. A retiring member State is not eligible for immediate re-election. Also, the member states of UN who are not members of Security Council may participate (without vote) in the discussion of the Security Council if the Council considers that the interests of that member are specially affected.
Each member of the Security Council has one vote. On Procedural matters decision of Security Council is to be made an affirmative votes of 9 members and on all other substantive matters are to be made by an affirmative votes of 9 members including the concurring (agree) votes of five permanent members. Which means in case of a substantive matter if a permanent member casts a negative vote on a substantive matter, the decision is blocked or vetoed (i.e., does not come into existence).
Power & functions of the Security Council are:
1. Pacific settlement of disputes (refer Article 33/34): It means disputes which are likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, then Security council may call upon parties to settle dispute by negotiation, inquiry, mediation etc.
2. Preventive and enforcement action to maintain peace and security (refer Article 37/39/41/42): If a dispute is of a serious nature which may result into a threat to peace,breach of the peace or act of aggression, then the Security council has the power to recommend such measures as are necessary to maintain or restore peace.
3. The Security council takes part along with the General Assembly in the appointment of Security General of UN and in the election of the Judges of International Court of Justice.
4. For amendment of UN Charter: approval of 5 permanent members is essential along with 2/3 members of General assembly. (Article 108)
5. Security Council has supervisory function over General assembly in admission, suspension and expulsion of members.
5. Control and supervision of “trust territories”.